OUT FROM BEHIND CLOSED DOORS
The testimony of former Independent Grand Orange Lodge Chaplain Rev. Dr. Ray Pulman
(or why I am no longer an Orangeman)
THE QUALIFICATIONS OF AN ORANGEMAN state that: “An Orangeman should have a sincere love and veneration for his Heavenly Father; an humble and steadfast faith in Jesus Christ, the Saviour of mankind, believing in Him as the only Mediator between God and man. He should cultivate truth and justice, brotherly kindness and charity, devotion and piety, concord and unity’ and obedience to the laws; his deportment should be gentle and compassionate, kind and courteous; he should seek the society of the virtuous, and avoid that of the evil; he should honour and diligently study the Holy Scriptures, and make them the rule of his faith and practice; he should love, uphold, and defend the Protestant religion, and sincerely desire and endeavour to propagate its doctrines and precepts; he should strenuously oppose the fatal errors and doctrines of the Church of Rome, and scrupulously avoid countenancing by his presence or otherwise any act or ceremony of Popish worship; he should, by all lawful means, resist the ascendancy of that Church, its encroachments, and the extension of its power, ever abstaining from all uncharitable words, actions, or sentiments, towards his Roman Catholic neighbour; he should remember to keep holy the Sabbath day, and attend the public worship of God, and diligently train up his offspring, and all under his control, in the fear of God, and in the Protestant faith; he should never take the name of God in vain, but abstain from all cursing and profane language, and use every opportunity to discourage these, and all other sinful practices, in others; his conduct should be guided by wisdom and prudence, and marked by honesty, temperance, and sobriety; the glory of God and the welfare of man, the honour of his Sovereign, and the good of his country, should be the motive of his actions”
These are the qualifications or requirements of an Orangeman, a member of the Loyal Orange Institution! They are noble ideals, they are high ideals, they are ideals which a Christian could say ‘amen’ to. If all Orangemen lived out these ideals, or at least attempted to, the Orange Order would be a useful medium for the propagation of the Gospel in those places where Orangeism is to be found. It would be a society of good honest Christian men whose first thoughts would be for God and their second for the good of their fellow man. It would no doubt have a good effect upon the community round about and would have good report among all, save those who hate righteousness. It would be an organisation which would attract more and more godly men to its ranks. IF, it truly sought to be governed by the Qualifications of an Orangeman.
Sadly the reality is altogether too often so far removed from those ideals that Christian men feel compelled to leave the Orange Order and the other Loyal orders as a matter of conscience. I am one such man!
I wish to share with you something of my personal testimony, something of the circumstances in which I came to a saving knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ, and why I now have a bowler hat, orange sash and white gloves for sale.
Having been raised in a nominally Protestant home in Liverpool, England I was familiar with scenes of Orange parades on the streets of our city. The 12th of July, the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne, was an annual family day out when we would go to watch the bands at Southport. In the mid 1970’s I followed an older brother into the Orange Order and by the mid 80’s I was the ‘Worshipful Master’ of an Orange Lodge in Liverpool Province. At the same time I was also the Master of an RBP and a member of the ABOD. The Loyal Orders were at this time in my life very important to me, so much so that I would have probably done almost anything for the sake of ‘the cause’, or rather the cause as I understood it to be. I ate slept and drank Orangeism, attending any and every event and parade. I even attended the Lecture Class on a number of occasions in a desire to learn more about the Order. I was not simply a Loyalist as many in the orders are, I was a religious Protestant. Religious but lost, nevertheless, religious! A religious Pharisee! I had all the paraphernalia, including a bowler hat, whites gloves and of course, my Orange sash. On parade I was like the ‘cock of the North’ as I strutted along the road in file behind the bands.
My life around this time was very unhappy and I became somewhat depressed and took to holding up the bar in the Liverpool Provincial club almost every night of the week and rolling home drunk at all hours. The fact that one could get into such a state in a hall belonging to a professedly ‘religious order’ beggars belief, but there is worse than that for there is a church building in Bootle Province owned by the Orange Order which has a bar upstairs where Orangemen drink whilst religious services are being held downstairs! Is it not surprising then to find so many drunken Orangemen in the order when their religious services are conducted in such an atmosphere and treated with such contempt. I attended this church around the time of my conversion and it was common knowledge that during services the then Grand Master was sat in the bar, as were others!
So bad did my condition become that one drunken stupor simply rolled into another. At the same time my devotion to Orangeism greatly increased becoming my ‘raison d’être’. In this condition I was being pulled this way and that for on the one hand the religious element gripped me more and more, while on the other, I was being drawn towards paramilitarism. On the religious front I came under a great black cloud, which I now know was conviction of sin, I had a deep sense of my own worthlessness. Looking back I can see that God was at work in me!
For those who don’t know, there is an organisation that is considered to be the upper echelons of Orangeism. It is sometimes referred to as ‘The Poor Man’s Masons’, ‘The Black’ or ‘RBP’. Its proper title is ‘The Imperial Sovereign Grand Black Chapter of the British Commonwealth’ and is a form of Christianised Freemasonry! The local lodge in the Black institution is called a ‘Preceptory’, a place where precepts are taught. The eleven degrees of that order apparently evolved out of the Templar orders such as the Knights of Malta, as it would appear did those of Freemasonry.
I recall speaking to a man in my Black Preceptory, about this great sense of wretchedness which had come upon me. He was a man who, at that time, I thought, was a Christian, at least he said he was! Sadly, I now have severe doubts that he was such for if he had been a Christian he would have spoken to me of my need of Christ, but he didn’t. All he did do was place a New Testament into my hand and said something to the effect of ‘well Ray, if you feel comfortable with that in your hand, there isn’t much wrong with you’! This was nothing but an act of religious superstition, not far removed from the Romanism which men such as he would say they oppose. It did nothing to point me to Christ or deal with my burden of sin.
I was delivered from any further paramilitary involvement after the first escapade went wrong and, I am happy to say, was foiled. The consequences of this event were far reaching with one young man being jailed for a short term. I felt very much responsible for I too was a party to this act of wanton bigotry. It was around this period that I came to saving faith in Jesus Christ. My clearest memory of a day of realisation that I was a Christian was when on a Blacks parade I knew that I truly did desire a closer walk with God as we sang Wm Cowper’s great hymn, ‘O for a Closer Walk with God’. I also knew that it was ‘At the cross that my burden rolled away’ and that ‘it was there by faith I received my sight’ as we sang in another hymn at that service. I suppose it was around this time too that I bought a Bible of my own to read and thoroughly searched it out, devouring all I could, I also started to read about the Reformers such as Luther, and about William of Orange and his wife Mary. After all it was about time I did for, like most Orangemen, up until my conversion I knew next to nothing about true Protestantism and good King Billy!
I recall how on the day I had lost my job due to missing days and being late because of the great cloud of depression I was under at the time I found myself sitting outside the Job Centre in central Liverpool early one morning having been sacked just an hour earlier. As I sat on the bench a young man, an Australian I think, full of the joy of the Lord, came along and started to witness to me. I remember saying to him, despite my depressed, and now unemployed state, joyfully that I knew Christ as my Saviour. This is my first recollection of professing Christ openly, as one who knew Him as Saviour and my earliest recollection of anyone trying to speak to me of Christ! I had been in this religious, supposedly Protestant, order for many years and yet no one had ever spoken to me directly about Christ!
The more I read the Bible, the more I wanted to, this is the effect it has upon the repentant sinner. My values were being changed, or had changed. Those things of Orangeism and Loyalism started to fade into insignificance as did my need to spend my hours looking into a beer glass. I had found the true object of my desire – Christ. The drunken, foul-mouthed Orangeman was dead. The born again Ray was being wooed away from the Loyal Orders by Jesus, for the more I read the Scriptures, the more I was compelled to examine my associations. Texts such as Ephesians 5:11 which say “And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them.” Started to challenge me greatly.
Then others like 2 Corinthians 6:17 hit me like a truck, “Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel? And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you, And will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty.”
How could I ignore the challenge of the very next verse, 2 Corinthians 7:1 “Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.” My heart at this time was set on my new love, the Lord Jesus Christ, it was Him above all I sought to please, but I was up to my neck in the Loyal Orders.
In the wake of the ‘foiled escapade’ the local paramilitaries ‘requested’ my presence at a meeting in a Liverpool bar as they wanted to know the details of the event that ended with a young man in jail as it was not one that they had sanctioned. I explained the circumstances to the ‘kangaroo court’ and was exonerated of any culpability. As I left that meeting I said to one of the men, a man who was a friend of mine, that I was now finished with such things for I had found a new way to fight, I was referring to the Gospel. I handed him a Bible and asked him to pass it onto the lad who was in jail along with some other Christian literature. I had decided to follow Jesus with a sincere intention of no turning back, no turning back to Loyalist ideology. It wasn’t until some ten or more years later that I met the lad who had been jailed at a Gospel meeting. He told me two very important things:
First, that he had been saved some years ago and still had the Bible I sent him. Second, that he had long since forgiven me for my part in the events that led to his unfortunate incarceration. Both of these were a source of real joy, answers to much prayer and the end of much heartache.
Not only was I led away from Loyalism by Christ in the circumstances already detailed, but after having read and considered two books, both readily available today, I was convicted of the sinfulness of my lodge membership. The two books were ‘Christ the Christian and Freemasonry’ by Mc McCormick, founder of the Breda Centre in Belfast and ‘Lodges Examined by the Bible’ by the American Evangelist Dr John R Rice. Though Dr Rice doesn’t mention Orangeism, in fact I doubt whether he knew of its existence, the book spoke to me very clearly about my unequal yoke with unregenerate Orangemen and my involvement in what was clearly a quasi-Masonic organisation. Though McCormick’s book was primarily about Freemasonry he was wise enough, and brave enough, to make the connection between Orangeism and Freemasonry drawing some clear parallels, parallels which are continually being denied by Orangemen though the link is clear to any who will dare to look! However, “there are none so blind as those who will not see”!
At that time when I was full of the ‘zeal of the converted’ I saw clearly the objections of both Dr Rice and Mc McCormick. As a consequence I wrote three letters of resignation in the same night and shortly afterwards I destroyed my Royal Arch Purple degree certificate, the highest degree within the Orange Order, and my Red Cross degree certificate, which is the highest degree within the Black Institution. I disposed of my regalia by giving some of it away and simply abandoning other to the Lodge Rooms. For several years I purposely avoided everything to do with Orangeism. Indeed I left Liverpool and went to Norfolk to find a job and to have Christian fellowship with friends I knew there. I returned to Liverpool about two or three years later, but again I managed to steer clear of Orangeism. This was not such a difficult thing to do, they made it easy for me, because the Orange Order in England is so ungodly!
Even if I had been prepared to ignore the opinions of McCormick and Rice I could not have ignored the men of violence that are in abundance in the Order in England. Indeed, one night I, a Master of an LOL, and another man were set upon in the street by drunken Orangemen and so badly beaten that we were hospitalised. The reason for the attack was that I had dared to point out in the District Lodge the drunken antics of a band on a Remembrance Day parade. Though the reasoning of the attackers was ‘you don’t speak out against your own’! This wicked attack was probably incited, and definitely encouraged by men who held, or even yet hold, high office in Liverpool Orangeism. Men who by their very membership claim to be Christian, as is the implication with all who join the order. A very strange kind of Christian indeed!
As a now born again believer I had no desire to be in the fraternal company of such evil and ungodly men. Nor did I wish to be associated with atheists, Freemasons and sodomites of which there are not a few. I remember one man being brought into our lodge who was asked whether or not he subscribed to the ‘Trinitarian Doctrine’, neither he, nor anyone else, knew what that question meant! The whole thing was a complete farce. In our particular lodge we not only had drunkards and philanderers, but at least one dedicated atheist. I am convinced that most men only joined the lodge so they could be in the band. No wonder we ended up with what can only be described in some cases as ‘the dregs of society’ in our membership. Those who joined were not interested in biblical Protestantism, they couldn’t give a fig for the principles of Orangeism, but were simply taken up with the booze and the band aspects of it all.
Though Orangeism remained a part of me, for it kind of takes root, I avoided it for many years simply seeking to follow Christ and to serve Him. The manner in which I was to serve Him was quite a different angle for me coming from the extremes of the Loyal Orders, for, in the course of time I became involved with a mission called ‘Christians Evangelising Catholics’. A ministry to Roman Catholics! I stayed with this mission in full-time, but unpaid, work for five years or so and what great lessons I learned from that time. The Lord gave me a heart to see Roman Catholics as dear souls who are religious but lost, instead of ‘the enemy’. He taught me to love them and put a desire in my heart to win them with the message of the Gospel. An earnest desire which remains with me to this day, thank God.
I continued to serve the Lord both in my local church and as an evangelist. In an effort to prepare myself for further service, for I had long felt called of God to Christian ministry. I entered upon a four year theological training course with the Evangelical Movement of Wales, based at Bryntirion with the backing of my church. The Lord was working in me, mellowing me, rubbing off some of the sharp corners, gifting me, preparing me for the work ahead. I was now seeking to live for Christ rather than a human cause and had been doing so for many years up to this point in time. It was not until the August of 1997 when I was called to the work of the Evangelical Protestant Society in Northern Ireland that I took the slightest interest in Orangeism again.
With Orangeism being so prevalent in Northern Ireland one soon met good Christian men, godly men, who were also Orangemen. This was an altogether new experience for me. I found myself now associating with good solid Christian men who also happened to be Orangemen. They showed an altogether different face of Orangeism. All of this made contact with the Orange thread that still ran through my Protestant veins. Time had dimmed my sight, I had put away, or forgotten, the biblical arguments that McCormick and Rice had raised, the wonderful truths I had been challenged with from the Bible and was now a prime candidate for re-entering the Orange Order. However, I soon discovered that if I wished to rejoin the Orange in Ulster I would have to go via the old connections in England. I was not prepared to do that, there was no way I wanted anything to do with such a bunch of wicked men, they were history as far as I was concerned.
I then discovered that there was an Independent Orange Order in Ulster which boasted a large evangelical element in its number who did not require me to join via any English connection. Before I knew it I was a founding member of ILOL No 6 ‘Pride of Ballymaccarett – Purple Star’ and became its Secretary. I am sorry to say that I introduced several other men to the lodge, including my own 14 year old son. In all fairness I found the quality of this lodge, and the ILOL as a whole, vastly superior to English Orangeism. Our lodge did not go in for too much of the ritual, we had times of open prayer, and we were all Christian men. Parades, though markedly smaller in size, were of a much better standard than those of the Grand Orange Lodge of England, GOL of Scotland or GOL of Ireland. If someone was to be in the Orange Order there was much to commend the ILOL in Ireland over those others mentioned.
As numbers grew in the lodge and the new men passed through the first two degrees, the Orange and Plain Purple, there was a feeling of progress, we felt that we were getting somewhere. In two years or so we had gone from the founding five to thirteen in number. While all this was taking place a number of other things were also happening, which I shall come to in a moment. We had always openly stated in our lodge that if there was a conflict between Christ and the Order, it was Christ who came first. This was not an extraordinary attitude for our lodge when one considers that we had in our membership two ministers, two ordained elders, and at least one deacon, all belonging to evangelical churches. This is surely the correct attitude of Christian men to anything – we are to test the spirits to see whether they are of God. This healthy attitude was foremost in my own mind with regard to such issues as booze, paramilitarism, unregenerate applicants and the Royal Arch Purple degree. None of these things were a problem initially, but they were soon to become so!
As time went on I heard Grand Lodge officers saying that the ILOL took a strong stand against booze, despite the fact that some English ILOL men compromise severely on this point by meeting in a bar on the Lord’s Day. I also found that the ILOL would, from time to time, state that it would have no dealings with paramilitaries, again this was despite the fact that the ILOL in both Scotland and England is riddled with them. Though we had early decided in our lodge that we wouldn’t push anyone into the passing through the RAP and that we were content with the two basic degrees the subject of the RAP was soon to become a bone of contention. These anomalies started to come to light little by little and as the penny started to drop with me about these issues a rather unwelcome book appeared on the Orange scene. A man by the name of Paul Malcolmson was brought to my notice for he had dared to question the validity of Christians being involved with the Royal Arch Purple Chapter of the Loyal Orders. The body that operates the Royal Arch Purple degree.
My understanding is that he wasn’t attacking Orangeism per se’, but rather the ‘Two and a half’, as it is sometimes known, or ‘Royal Arch Purple degree’, the degree which for most Orangemen comes after the Plain Purple. This man was discussed at length both within and without the lodge as to his motivation for publishing his book and with regard to his character. Thus far I had not read the book but I soon obtained a copy because I wanted to know just what the man had really said and not a lot of second-hand stories. I purchased a copy and discovered that some of the issues raised were the very same issues that I had felt convicted about back in Liverpool all those years before.
In the following months I happened to find myself sitting next to the author at a meeting in England when he introduced himself. In contradiction to the tales I had heard about his character, for I had heard much in the way of what can only be described as ‘character assassination’, I found a man who was pleasant and thoroughly Christian in his manner. I told him that I had read his book but found some of his conclusions a bit off beam. These I put down to his Pentecostal leanings, however I do agree with him in regard to his objections to the Masonic overtones, the abuse of Holy Scripture, the use of violence, blood-curdling Masonic oaths and the blatant tomfoolery that is committed in the name of Christ in this degree.
Returning to Belfast the debate within and without the lodge about the book, ‘Behind Closed Doors’, ran on for months. Though much talk went on around the book I cannot recall anyone ever raising a valid objection to it, or satisfactorily answering any of the questions raised by it. I did however, as I previously said, hear much in the way of personal attacks against its author. I was becoming increasingly unhappy with the way in which these very important issues raised in the book were being ignored. I knew that the book raised many valid arguments against the RAP, for they are the same arguments that McCormick and Rice raised in my mind previously, I hoped for an attitude of openness, a willingness to examine the RAP and reject the errors of it but all that happened was a closing of ranks and a whitewash of the issues. Arguments which I had once raised but forgotten for a while had now coming to the fore once again. I foolishly hoped for a reform within Orangeism but only found intransigence!
My conscience was given another severe jog when I came into possession of another publication titled ‘The Forgotten History of the Orange Order’. This booklet clearly showed, from the Orange Order’s own history the dubious origins of the Royal Arch Purple degree and, though it sticks in my craw a bit to say so, the Black degrees also. I say that, for despite all I have said thus far, I had a strong affection for the Black order for I had always believed it to be more Christian in its ethos than the Orange. However, that illusion was also destroyed when I saw many ‘Sir Knights’, as members of that order are called, on parade a couple of years ago in Bangor, Northern Ireland steaming drunk, so drunk that some could hardly stand. Drunken men displaying the emblems of the Christian faith. They were a disgrace to their order and the religion they profess. I have seen other ‘Sir Knights’ at other parades since in a similar condition! Here was another publication which showed that the Orange Order had itself for more than 100 years sought to reject the RAP degree, but again those within the order were unwilling to look at the issues, even evidence from their own archival history!
I now realise that I had, by rejoining the Orange Order, become as the proverbial dog that returns to its own vomit. I had, I feel, in a sense, taken my eyes of the cross for a moment and found myself walking in Bunyan’s ‘By-path Meadow’. The actual outworking of the Orange Order just do not add up to their own stated requirements as set forth in the Qualifications of an Orangeman, their membership generally fall very short of those ideals and those in authority within the order are utterly unwilling to examine the history but rather act with a ‘revisionist’ attitude to their own historical facts!
In the first week of January 2001 I resigned from the ILOL with a simple letter stating that I had ‘other commitments’. By resigning, yet again, I believe I have jumped back over the wall onto the straight and narrow and now simply seek to please Him who gave Himself for me upon the cross at Calvary! Christ, and the work of spreading the unadulterated Gospel is my ‘other commitment’, my only commitment, and I trust, lifelong commitment, God being my helper!
I have discovered by hard lessons that Ulster Orangeism is not simply at odds with the Word of God in the matter of the Royal Arch Purple but I have also discovered that the alleged fraternal bond just does not exist. Though the qualifications of an Orangeman are high ideals there are, as I have said, but few who come anywhere near displaying them. Though I do know ‘a few’ who are the embodiment of those noble ideals. Too often though I have found some professedly Christian Orangemen to be most unscrupulous in their dealings with those both within and without the order. I have found some to be schemers, liars, double tongued, two faced, back stabbing and utterly ruthless. This is a far cry from not only the Qualifications of an Orangeman, the five points of fellowship that supposedly exist between all true Orangemen and the principals of Orangeism but a mile from the portrait of a Christian that the Bible demonstrates!
I am free again and I have no intentions of becoming ensnared with what I believe to be the unfruitful and questionable associations of Orangeism. This is why I have a bowler hat, orange sash and white gloves for sale, they are surplus to my requirements!
In summary I would say that three things stand out about Orangeism:
1. It is, in some of its official practices, ritual and associations very questionable when held up to the light of Holy Scripture.
2. The sort of people one mixes with in Orangeism are, in too many cases, wicked men. Again this is a situation which demands addressing by the evangelical Christian.
3. There is an attitude of belligerence and complete intransigence.
The first two points have been covered earlier but this third point is also a matter of great importance. Many people outside of Orangeism see the media reports of the Drumcree situation, and the other stand-offs with the security forces, and they are horrified at what they think they see. Hordes of Orangemen battling it out with the Police and Army. They not surprisingly question whether this has anything to do with Christianity. In all fairness it must be said that the violence is usually committed by paramilitary type ‘hangers on’ and not the Orangemen – but what ‘impression’ does it give to the world about Ulster Christians, about the Orange Order?
We are told in the Word of God to “Abstain from all appearance of evil” (1 Thessalonians 5:22), not just evil, but ‘all appearance’ of it! Whilst I am strongly of the opinion that the Orangemen have a civil right to walk down the Garvaghy road and I will be happy for them if ever they are granted passage along it, for I am totally in favour of religious and civil liberties for all, for now though, I cannot help but ask the question in regard to the stand off at the barricades, ‘what would Jesus do?’ What would the Lord Jesus Christ do in such a situation? I believe he would obey the law, and go and pray that justice would be done! Sadly the response of many Orangemen in regard to Drumcree has been far from Christ-like. Should Christians be part of such goings on?
Putting these public issues aside and considering just what does go on behind closed doors is it right for Christians to be involved in an organisation that relies so heavily upon a satanic cult such as Freemasonry for its structures, for its symbolism and in some cases its membership? Is it Christian for a man to use the top of a human skull for a drinking vessel in a religious ritual? Is it Christian to beat a man as part of a religious ritual? Is it Christian to have a man commit himself to what the order says is a ‘solemn and binding obligation’ without first knowing what that obligation is? Is it Christian to foreswear oneself with the three severe penalties of a Masonic oath that came from the pit of hell? Is it Christian to wrest the Scriptures to facilitate a religious ritual which contains any of these things?
Perhaps you think I am being too hard on Orangeism and would say that there are many good men in its ranks. Yes, there are good Christian men very much involved in the Order and I hope that they are convinced from Scripture that it is quite alright to be a member and that they never have anything like any of the awful experiences I have had at the hands of so called brethren. Perhaps my conclusions are wrong and my conscience in these matters has been unnecessarily pricked. Perhaps I have simply misinterpreted the facts! It is possible, but I don’t believe that is the case, for this is my own personal testimony, this was my experience of the Orange Order!
All I would ask of anyone within the Loyal Orders who professes Jesus Christ as their Lord and Saviour is that they would at least dare to examine their associations and the degrees in the light of Holy Scripture and act according to their conscience, but please do not simply try to ignore the issues! “As for me and my house, we will serve the Lord”!
“Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful” (Psalm 1).
OUT FROM BEHIND CLOSED DOORS
Testimonies from some of the many evangelicals currently resigning from the Orange Order, the Royal Arch Purple Order and the Royal Black Institution for biblical reasons.
Former County Down Orange Treasurer, Worshipful Master, Deputy Master, and Chaplain – Jackson Blakely
Former County Londonderry Orange and Royal Arch Purpleman Andrew Evans
Former County Armagh Orange, Royal Arch Purple and (Red Cross) Blackman Alex Newell
Former Independent Grand Orange Lodge Chaplain Rev. Dr. Ray Pulman (also former Red Cross Blackman)
Former County Tyrone Orange Chaplain and Orange/Small Purple Lecturer Paul Stewart (also former Red Cross Blackman)
Reviews of Inside the Royal Black Institution from Rev. Canon Brian T. Blacoe (former Deputy Grand Chaplain of the Royal Black Institution), Malcolm McClughan (former Royal Black Lecturer) and David Carson (Chairman of the United Protestant Council).
Questions that Christian Orangemen should consider